miércoles, 17 de junio de 2009
VILLAGE Wayúu BIODIVERSITY AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE: FOUR NOTES FOR REFLECTION
from the Wayúu people, the debate on biodiversity and traditional knowledge implies the rupture of some stereotypes. The first is the widespread tendency to assume the importance and significance of the biodiversity associated almost exclusively with tropical moist forest ecosystems. The second is evident in the perspective of addressing the issue of traditional knowledge associated primarily with the practices of farmers and rural people. The territory of the village Wayúu not part of the ecosystems of tropical rainforest and is not a people who base their economic and productive activities in agriculture. In contrast, the Wayúu territory is located in desert ecosystems, dry and arid grazing, fishing and trade are part of the survival of the most important people Wayúu. Within the vast territory Wayúu makes this a great biodiversity, but does not buy it reaches the proportions in other regions like the Amazon or the Choco Biogeographic must be considered and studied properly. Moreover Wayúu people from their grazing activity, gathering and fishing, used in many ways the biodiversity within its territory. That is why we can say that the discussions have been taking place, driven considerably by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), not only affect the peoples of the Amazon or the Pacific, the peoples and peasant farmers, but they have much to do with a village of pastoralists living in arid and desert ecosystems. II With regard to people Wayúu one of the main concerns that arise when thinking about traditional knowledge and biodiversity in our country has to do with the tragic fact that the pace of cultural erosion that is resulting in the disappearance of traditional knowledge is much larger than the extinction of flora and fauna. This leads to think that any strategy for conservation and recovery of flora and fauna must necessarily rely on the recovery and revitalization of traditional knowledge is an obvious urgency. When you read the text of Article 8 (j) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), although that is not the only one that has the closest relationship with indigenous peoples, there are some interrogantes1. The first has to do with the enormous difficulties that exist, from the worldview of the people Wayúu to draw boundaries between the traditional knowledge associated with sustainable use of biodiversity and other traditional knowledge that are not apparently related to biodiversity. What is the boundary between this kind of knowledge, "Who defines those limits, what can be understood by sustainable uses ... are questions that break and require deep thinking. The second has to do with the great difficulties that exist, from the cultural tradition Wayúu to define boundaries between what is called traditional knowledge associated with sustainable use of biodiversity and other aspects of cultural and intellectual heritage of the people Wayúu. How far something can be taken as a TK?, How far other aspects of cultural and intellectual heritage of the people are also Wayúu TK. Undoubtedly any categorization that is always going to be controversial. The third has to do with the fact that according to the worldview of the people Wayúu all components of nature are endowed with life, and in that sense, a very precise distinction between living beings and inert elements of nature is not possible. Hence, rocks, streams, winds, rains ... and spirit are also considered to be alive, ie as components of biodiversity. The fourth has to do with the peremptory terms "communities embodying traditional lifestyles" and "use" that appear several times in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), since they can practice to exclude indigenous peoples living in areas urban areas, such as the Wayúu people, or has developed practices that do not fit within the narrow definition of "customary use" as it is configured with input from diverse cultural traditions. Who defines what they are or are not "traditional lifestyles", "Who defines what is a" use "? ... Are questions that have not yet been answered. III Behind the seemingly homogeneous desert landscape, dry and very dry in the Upper and Middle Guajira, hides a floristic biodiversity negligible. Wayúu territory, particularly in regard to the dry forests, there is a significant biodiversity of flora which has not yet sufficiently known interest of researchers. A lot of the flora in Wayúu territory is widely used by specialists and knowing Finnish native medicinal and therapeutic uses. It raised the number of plants has a high impact on the prevention and cure of various diseases. Thus about the dry forests Wayúu have developed a complex system of medical knowledge. The management and use of plants for therapeutic purposes has a long tradition among Wayúu. This is reflected in the use of these plants is carried out in various ways, among which are: direct application, juice or juice, bathrooms, powder, friction, cataplasm, pasta, steam inhalation, cleaned, ash, chewing , harp, and smoke inhalation plague. A study identified reciente2 percent twenty-five (125) diseases that affect the daily Wayúu, which are treated with one hundred (100) species, some are wild and are cultivated. Among the plants that are mostly used to treat diseases include, for example, the siguientes3: aloe, malambo, tua tua, pringamosa and trupillo, dividivi. Among the diseases that are treated with traditional herbal medicine, the study said, are the most frequent colds or flu, colds, constipation, wound healing, diarrhea, fevers, skin diseases, respiratory diseases, body aches, arthritis, rheumatism etc ... . The plants are not only used for medicinal purposes, as some are used as a means of subsistence, ahuyama and corn, while others in the past had a commercial dispute, as the stick dividivi and Brazil. Furthermore, the aloe and cacti are a large number of representatives that have a promising future for industrial and pharmaceutical use. Some plants are very abundant and are easily and immediately available to Wayúu, enabling innovations from the various tests and various mixtures. Among these plants abundant and easy achievement are: tua tua, brush house, Chinese cotton, olive female trupillo, Cardona and Guayabito guajiro. For its part malambo plant, palo amargo, sin and wonder, despite being frequently used in a wide range of treatments are difficult to locate and reach some high prices in local and regional markets. The existence of some plants associated with the seasons has led the Wayúu to develop procedures for drying and preserving plants for long periods or portions thereof to be used in times of scarcity. What was previously mentioned is only one aspect among many others, the management of biodiversity that is making people Wayúu. Reference was made only xerophytic forest biodiversity, but it is clear that in this forest does not exhaust all of the biodiversity present within the territory Wayúu because we must not forget that there are the National Park of La Macuira and the Sanctuary Animals of the Flamingos. Likewise we should not ignore the biodiversity in coastal and marine ecosystems that are part of the territory Wayúu. IV In relation to the subject of this reflection, ie biodiversity and traditional knowledge from the people Wayúu can make the following recommendations: 1. It is essential to advance training and education programs on this subject, taking the geographical, ecological and cultural aspects of La Guajira. Definitively address these issues must not be done solely from the perspective of the peoples of tropical rain forest or agricultural villages. 2. Should encourage the creation, in situ, nurseries, botanical gardens, orchards ... where they can keep the plants that exist in the traditional territory Wayúu. 3. It must articulate the people's involvement Wayúu to the discussions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in other discussions that are taking place on the international agenda, on desert ecosystems and marine ecosystems. 4. Efforts should be made to organize regular meetings of knowing, piaches, traditional doctors to Wayúu Wayúu empower the people in national and international discussions that are occurring around the biodiversity and traditional knowledge. 5. It must create spaces for reflection and gathering to address the issue of traditional knowledge and biodiversity from the perspective of the herders and fishermen.